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'미리읽기'에 해당되는 글 1건

  1. 2010.10.08 read-ahead 미리읽기란?


미리읽기란? 

I/O 와 CPU 연산을 동시에 수행해 그 수행 성능을 최대로 만들어 보겠다 라는 최적화 알고리즘이다.
상식적으로 읽고 연산 해야 하지만, "미리 쓰일것 같아, 먼저 읽어 두겠다." 는 것이고, 그로 인해 연산을 먼저 시작할 수 있으므로 성능은 더 낳아진다. 라는 이론이다. 하지만 side effect 로 영원히 읽지 않아도 되는 것을 미리 읽어 I/O 성능을 갉아 먹을 수 있는 역 기능을 수행 할 수도 있다.

미리읽기는 IAM 을 이용하는 방법과 index 의 non-leaf 를 이용하는 방법이 있다. 이것의 작동 방식은 BOL에 상세히 나와 있다. 조금만 살펴 본다면, IAM 이 bit 단위로 extents 할당 단위를 표현하고 있고, 이 IAM 1Byte를 읽어 (8 extents = 64K * 8 = 512K) 씩 물리적 방향에 맞게 ASync 방식으로 읽을수 있다. 또 Index 의 경우,  index 의 non-leaf 를 읽어 모여있는 페이지를 몇개를 Async 로 순서에 맞게 읽을 수 있으므로, 그 성능을 좋게 할 수 있다. 핵심은 역시 I/O 와 CPU 연산을 동시에 할 수 있다는 것이 가장 크다. SQL Server EE 의 경우 미리 읽기를 더 잘 할 수 있다.

 


 

2008 R2

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms191475(v=sql.105).aspx

The read-ahead mechanism allows the Database Engine to read up to 64 contiguous pages (512KB) from one file.

 

 

2000

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc966500.aspx

SQL Server uses the Win32 API calls as follows.

 

 

API

Common Usage

CreateFile

Used to create and open database and log files. The flags FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED, FILE_FLAG_WRITETHROUGH, and FILE_FLAG_NO_BUFFERING are specified to avoid nonstable media caching.

WriteFile

Primarily used by the log manager and backup manager to handle I/Os.

ReadFile

Primarily used by the log manager and backup manager to handle I/Os.

WriteFileGather

Primarily used by the buffer pool to write page groups (up to sixteen 8-KB pages in a group).

ReadFileScatter

Primarily used by the buffer pool to read pages into the buffer pool. Can be used for single page requests as well as read-ahead requests. Read-ahead requests are generally 128 pages for each group but can be as many as 1,024 pages when running Microsoft SQL Server Enterprise Edition.

HasOverlappedIoCompleted

Used to determine the status of I/O requests.

GetOverlappedResults

Used to determine success of the I/O requests.

 

 

디버깅 하니....다 나오는구만....-_- 궁금해 할 필요 없이 보면 된다....!

 


미리 읽기의 비 활성화 방법

관련 TRACE FLAG
652 Disables read ahead for the server.
653 Disables read ahead for the current connection.
3222 Disables the read ahead that is used by the recovery operation during roll forward operations.

BOL
http://msdn.microsoft.com/ko-kr/library/ms191475.aspx

좋은 아티클 테스트 포함

http://sqlblog.com/blogs/linchi_shea/archive/2008/07/04/performance-impact-some-data-points-on-read-ahead.aspx
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc966500.aspx
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc917726.aspx

위 아티클을 읽으면, 읽기의 물리적인 단위는 extents 이고 논리적인 읽기의 단위는 page 이다. 쓰기의 물리적인 단위는 page 이다. 그리고, 823,824 등등 오류의 정의도 볼 수 있다.

Object ID

This is the ID of the object to which the page is assigned within the schema of the database. A page can be assigned to only a single object. When the page is read from disk, the object ID is checked on the page. If the object ID does not match the expected object ID, SQL Server will generate Error 605.

SQL Server often performs its writes on page-sized, 8-KB, or larger boundaries.

Extents

SQL Server generally (except for nonmixed extents) allocates space an extent at a time. An extent is eight 8-KB pages, or 64 KB. SQL Server often performs reads in extent-sized (64 KB or 128 KB) boundaries as well.

Read-Ahead

SQL Server 2000 uses ReadFileScatter to perform read-ahead operations. SQL Server uses sophisticated algorithms to retrieve data pages that are going to be used in the immediate future.

For example, if you run a query that can use an index to determine applicable rows, a read-ahead may occur on the actual data pages that are needed to complete the select list. As index entries are identified, SQL Server can post OVERLAPPED (async) I/O operations for the data pages that will be used in upcoming steps of the query plan. This is how a query using a bookmark lookup operator uses read-ahead.

This example is just one of many read-ahead situations that SQL Server can use. Allowing the index searching to continue while the data page I/O is in progress maximizes the CPU and I/O of the system. The I/O is often completed by the time it is needed so other steps in the plan have direct memory access to the needed data and do not have to stall while waiting on I/O.

When a read-ahead is posted, it can be from 1 to 1,024 pages. SQL Server limits a single read-ahead request depth to 128 pages on most editions. However, Microsoft SQL Server Enterprise Edition raises the limit to 1,024 pages.

SQL Server uses the following steps to set up read-ahead.

  1. Obtain the requested amount of buffers from the free list.

  2. For each page:

    1. Determine the in-memory status of the page by doing a hash search.

    2. If found to be already in memory, set up the read-ahead request to immediately return the buffer to the free list upon I/O completion.

    3. Establish the proper I/O request information for ReadFileScatter invocation.

    4. Acquire I/O latch to protect buffer from further access.

    5. If the page is not found in hash search then insert it into the hash table.

  3. Issue the ReadFileScatter operation to read the data.

When the I/O operation is complete, each page is sanity checked for a valid page number and torn page errors. In addition, various other data integrity and safety checks are performed. The I/O latch is then released so the page is available for use if it is located on the hash chain. If the page was determined to be already in memory, the page is immediately discarded to the free list.

This process shows the key factors of SQL Server I/O patterns. Read-ahead goes after pages that can already be in memory or not allocated. Because SQL Server maintains the in-memory buffers and hash chains, SQL Server tracks the page’s state. Importantly, read-ahead processing opens the door for overlapping read and write requests at the hardware level.

If a page is already in memory when the read-ahead request is posted, the contiguous read is still needed and is faster than breaking up read requests into multiple physical requests. SQL Server considers the read to be unusable for the page in question, but many of the pages around it may be usable. However, if a write operation is in progress when the read is posted, the subsystem has to determine which image of the read to return. Some implementations return the current version of the page before the write is complete; others make the read wait until the write completes; and yet others return a combination, showing partially new data and partially old data. The key is that SQL Server will discard the read as unusable but the subsystem needs to maintain the proper image for subsequent read operations. The in-progress write, when completed, must be the next read image returned to the server running SQL Server.

Do not confuse read-ahead with parallel query plans. Read-ahead occurs independently of the parallel query plan selection. The parallel plan may drive I/O harder because multiple workers are driving the load, but read-ahead occurs for serial and parallel plans. To ensure that parallel workers do not work on the same data sets, SQL Server implements the parallel page supplier to help segment the data requests.

Reads
When a page or log block is read from disk, the checksum (page audit) value is calculated and compared to the checksum value that was stored on the page or log block. If the values do not match, the data is considered to be damaged and an error message is generated.

SQL Server uses read-ahead logic to avoid query stalls caused by I/O waits. The read-ahead design tries to keep the physical reads and checksum comparisons out of the critical path of the active query, decreasing the performance effects of checksum activity.

    Read-ahead enhanced

In SQL Server 2005, the read-ahead design is enhanced so that it reduces physical data transfer requirements by trimming the leading and trailing pages from the request if the data page(s) are already in the buffer pool.

For more information on SQL Server read-ahead logic, see SQL Server I/O Basics (http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/sql/2000/maintain/sqlIObasics.mspx).

For example, a read-ahead request is to be issued for pages 1 through 128 but pages 1 and 128 are already located in the SQL Server buffer pool. The read-ahead request would be for pages 2 through 127 in SQL Server 2005. In comparison, SQL Server 2000 requests pages 1 through 128 and ignores the data that is returned for pages 1 and 128.

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